türk

Türk kelimesinin birçok ülkeye göre değişen bir etimolojisi var. Batılılar bu kelimeyi kendi bakış açılarına göre tasvir ediyorlar ve Türk kelimesini, barbarlığı açıklar nitelikte kuvvet olarak tanımlıyorlar. Oysa bu kelime, hakimiyeti altına aldığı coğrafyalarda kuvvet anlamının yanı sıra olgunluk ve güzellik anlamlarını da taşımaktadır. Prof. Dr. İlber Ortaylı gibi birçok bilim adamı ve araştırmacı da Türkiye kelimesinin İtalyanca’dan geldiğini belirtmektedirler. İlber Ortaylı bir makalesinde, Cenovalı ve Venedikli tüccarların ve  diplomatların 12. yüzyılda ülkemizi Turchia ve Turcmenia olarak tanımladıklarını yazmıştır. Prof. Dr. Abdulhaluk Çay ise kelimenin daha da geçmiş tarihine giderek Turchia kelimesini ilk defa 6. yüzyılda Bizans kaynaklarında gördüğünü söyler. Açıklaması ise şöyledir: “Bu tabir 9. ve 10. yüzyıllarda İdil- Volga nehrinden Orta Avrupa’ya kadar uzanan saha için kullanılmıştır.”

Ayrıca kelimenin bu şekilde bir kullanımının  Kafkasya bölgesinde Hazar Kağanlığı için Doğu Türkiyesi, Arpad hanedanının kurduğu Macar Devleti için Batı Türkiyesi şeklinde olduğunu açıklar. Ek olarak ise aynı tanımın 12. yüzyıldan itibaren Anadolu için kullanıldığını belirtir. Üzerinde durulan bu konunun en dikkat çeken tarafı da Batılıların Türkiye halkına hiçbir zaman Türkiyeli demeyip, Türk demeleridir. Böylelikle, Türkler isimlerini ülkeden değil, ülke ismini Türklerden almıştır sonucuna varılmış olunuyor. 12. yüzyıldan itibaren, Avrupalıların, Anadolu’nun Türklerin yurdu olduğunu ve bu ülkedeki Türklerin çoğunlukta olduğunu vurgulamak için bu bölgeyi Turcmenia veya Turkomania yani Türk ülkesi olarak adlandırdıkları görülmektedir. Ünlü Gezgin Marco Polo da Anadolu’yu Turchomania olarak tanımlayanlar arasındaydı. Daha sonra Klavio ve J. Barbaro gibi diplomatlar da bu görüşe katılmışlardır. Neuste Reisebeschreibung adlı eserde Erzurum ve Van yöresi de Türkomonia yani Türkmenistan olarak belirtilmiştir.

Türkiyeli Kelimesi Doğru Bir İfade Mi?

Türkiyeli kelimesi Türk kelimesinin yerine kullanılmak istenmektedir. Fakat coğrafi ilişkiyi ifade eden Türkiyeli tanımının hiçbir tarihi ve meşru bir kaynağı yoktur. Türk kelimesi ise olgunluk, kemal ve kuvvet anlamlarını taşır. Bu kelime, Eski Uygur Türkçesi’nde de, güç ve kuvvet anlamlarına gelmekteydi. Kaşgarlı Mahmud’un 11. yüzyılda yazdığı ünlü eseri Divan-ü Lügat-it Türk’te, Türk kelimesinin vakit anlamını taşıdığı belirtilir. Ayrıca bütün meyvelerin olgunlaştığı zamanın ortası olduğu ifade edilir. Eserde verilen örnekler şu şekildedir: Türk üzüm odi cümlesi, üzümün olgunluk vakti anlamına gelirken, Türkiye Yiğit cümlesi gençlik çağının ortası anlamına gelmektedir. Ek olarak, Türk kuyaş odi cümlesi ise Gün Ortası anlamını taşımaktadır. Ord, Prof. Sadri Maksudi Arsal bu kelimenin kuvvet ve kemal yani olgunluk anlamına geldiğini ifade eder. İran yani acem dilinde ise Türk güzel anlamında da kullanılır. Marcel Devik eserinde acemlerin, kadın veya erkek ayırmadan güzel bir genç gördüklerinde Türk dediklerini yazmıştır.

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