Sekülerizm,  ”Dünya odaklı olma, bakış açısını Dünya’ya çevirme” olarak açıklanabilir. Sekülerlik’in tarihsel sürecine baktığımızda, German-Anglosakson kültür ve medeniyetinde ortaya çıkarak şekillendiğini görüyoruz.Bir nevi ‘’dünyevileşme modeli’’ diyebiliriz.

Sekülerizm ve Laiklik Hangi Noktada  Ayrılır?

Hem ‘’ laiklik’’ hem de ‘’Sekülerlik’’in ortak noktası olarak; dünya hayatı ile ilişkili  tüm kamu işlerinde ‘’Dinle bir bağlantı kurmadan bizzat dünyanın içinden çıkan bir kamu” düzeni istemelerini söylenebilir.Fakat sekülerlik şu noktada ayrılır; laiklik gibi din’i “potansiyel tehlike” olarak görmez.


Bir Dünya Görüşü Olarak Sekülerizim..

Anglosaksonların dünyasında din, sistemin karşısında ve dışında bulunmaz tam olarak içinde ve yanında yer alır.Ama bu kamu düzenini yönetmek veya kamu düzeninde etkin demek  değildir. Din, bir kurum olarak,  örneğin İngiltere’de Anglikan Kilisesi, toplumsal hayatın içerisinde  kabul edilen bir gerçeklik olarak kabul edilmektedir. Laiklik, siyasal ve hukuk sistemiyle ilgilenir bu yüzden de bir dünya görüşü değildir. Laikliğin siyasal ve hukuk alanında  kural koyuculuğu bireysel alanı ilgilendirmez. Fakat sekülerlik, bir dünya görüşüdür bundan dolayıda kural koyuculuğu bireysel alanı ilgilendirir. Kısaca özetlemek gerekirse, laiklik siyasi toplumsal alanı konu edinirken, sekülerlik ise bireysel alanı kendisine konu edinir.


Seküleristler dinle ile sekülerliğin ters orantılı olduğuna dair iddiada bulunurlar.Dinsel alanın bir toplumda azaldıkça sekülerliğin, sekülerlik azaldıkça da dinsel alanın artacağını söylerler. Kısaca, laiklik din ve devlet ayrımını, sekülerlik ise  din ve dünya hayatının ayrımını ifade eder. Seküleristler, kiliseyi en güçlü  düşmanları olarak görürler.Özetlersek; laikliğin kendini din ile tanımlama gibi bir derdi yoktur. Fakat sekülerlik kendini dinin bir nevi alternatifi olarak tanımlar. Sekülerlik, dini tanımlayan bir kavramdır, laiklik ise  devletin yönetsel ve hukuki niteliğini tanımlar.

Günümüzde Sekülerlik..

Aslında günümüz de sekülerlik ile laiklik arasındaki en gözle görülür fark kamusal alanın devletin alanı mı yoksa sivil toplumun alanı mı olduğudur. Sekülerlik kamusal alanın sivil topluma ait olduğunu savunurken, laiklik ise kamusal alanın doğası gereği devlete ait olduğunu iddia eder. Başka bir yönü ele alırsak; cumhuriyetçilik kamusal alanın devletin alanı olduğunu söylerken,  demokrasi ise kamusal alanın sivil toplumun alanı olduğunu söylemektedir. Halkının adına kamusal alanı inşa eden Fransız laiklik modeli, kamusal alanı devlete ait bir alan olarak kabul ederken buna karşıt olarak  Anglosakson tipi sekülerlik, kamusal alanını sivil topluma ait bir alan olarak kabul eder.


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