MEB kavramı, 1945 yılındaki Truman Bildirisi’ni izleyen 1970’li yıllara kadar devlet uygulamalarının bir geri yansıması olarak ve uluslararası örf adet olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Okyanusların anayasası olarak anılan BMDHS’ de, 3.Deniz Hukuku Konferansı’nda yapılan çalışmalar sonucunda MEB’e yer verilmiştir. Uluslararası alanda bir davranışın örf ve adet hukuku olabilmesi için sürekli ve istikrarlı bir şekilde tekrar etmesi gerekir. Ek olarak, devletlerin bu alanların oluşmasına olan güvenci doğrultusunda MEB, geçerli bir deniz yetki alanını oluşturmaktadır.

MEB Nedir?

Bu konudaki fikirlere göre MEB, BMDHS ile örf ve adet olmaktan uzaklaşıp pozitif hukukun içinde var olmuştur. Örf ve adet kurallarına, devletlerin sözleşme imzalamaları halinde bile, bir davranışın örf ve adet kuralına dönüştüğü kanaatine ulaşıldığı zaman uymaları gerekir. Bu konuya sözleşme imzalamayan ABD ve Türkiye’nin MEB ilan ederek örf ve adet kurallarını uygulaması örnek gösterilebilir. Sovyetler Birliği ‘de 1976 yılında ilan ettiği Balıkçılık bölgesini 1984 yılında MEB’e dönüştürmüştür. (Bozkurt, 2006:71-73)

Uluslararası Hukuktaki Yeri

MEB’in uluslararası hukuktaki kabul edilmiş deniz yetki alanları olduğunu uluslararası mahkemelerin aldığı kararlar da doğrulamaktadır. Mesela, 1982 yılındaki UAD’ nin (Uluslararası Adalet Divanı) Tunus- Libya kararı buna örnektir. Bu karar MEB’in modern uluslararası hukukun bir parçası haline geldiğini göstermiştir. ABD’nin ilan etmiş olduğu MEB’in, sözleşmeye uygun ve uluslararası hukukla uyumlu olduğu, 1984 yılında ABD ve Kanada arasındaki Maine Körfezi davasında ifade edilmiştir. MEB’in, 1985 yılındaki Libya- Malta Kıta Sahanlığı Davası’nda da yer aldığını görebiliriz. Mahkeme kararı da MEB’in devlet uygulamalarını yansıttığını tartışmaya kapalı bir şekilde ifade etmiştir. Bununla birlikte örf ve adet hukukunun da içinde var olduğu belirtilmiştir.

Deniz Hukuku Nedir?

Hem uluslararası hem de milli sulara ilişkin olarak uyulması gereken kuralları belirleyen bir hukuk dalıdır. Denizlerdeki seferler, deniz altındaki zenginliklerin kullanımı, MEB ve ülke karasularının mesafesi gibi birçok konuyu içerir. Deniz Hukuku alanında Birleşmiş Milletler tarafından üç büyük konferans düzenlenmiştir.



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