ırkçılık

Irkçı, sadece ırka bağlı olarak bazı ırkların üstünlüğüne, bazı ırkların ise aşağı olduğuna inanan kişidir. Irkçılık ise; bir toplumun yapı ve işleyişine nüfuz etmiş, açıkça ifade edilmiş veya edilmemiş, birey veya grupların ırka dayalı inanç ve tutumlarıdır (Giddens, 2008, s. 540). Irkçılık kimi zaman saldırgan edimlere dönüşse de, kimi zaman bir kişinin/grubun/ topluluğun kayrılması veya bir ayrımcılığa uğraması şeklinde de tezahür edebilir. Adil bir tutum içerisindeymişçesine özellikle devlet kurumlarındaki muktedirler tarafından sistematik olarak uygulanan bu tür ayrımcı tutumlar; kurumsal ırkçılık olarak nitelenmektedir.(Giddens, 2008, s. 540-541)

ırkçılık

Modern Dünya’da ırkçılığın hala devam etmesi; sömürü düzenine haklı gerekçe oluşturmak için ırkçılık terminolojisinin türetilip yaygınlaştırılması, beyaz ırk dışındakilerin aşağı oldukları düşüncesinin sömürmeyi doğallaştırması ve beyazların kalifiye göçmenler hakkında tehdit algısı ile günah keçisi haline getirmeleri gibi nedenlere bağlıdır (Giddens, 2008, s. 541). Irkçılar doğuştan gelen ve kalıtımla geçmiş özelliklerin biyolojik olarak insan davranışını belirlediğine inanan kişilerdir. Irkçılık doktrini, insanın taşıdığı kanın ulusal-etnik kimliğinin belirleyicisi olduğunu savunur.

Irkçı Yahudi Karşıtlığı

Irkçı Yahudi karşıtlığının (gerçek dışı biyolojik teorilere dayanarak Yahudilere karşı önyargı beslemek ya da nefret etmek) da dâhil olduğu ırkçılık, Alman Ulusal Sosyalizmi’nin (Nazizm) her zaman ayrılmaz bir parçası olmuştur.

ırkçılık

Naziler, bütün insanlık tarihini farklı ırklardan gelen insanlar arasında biyolojik olarak belirlenen bir mücadelenin tarihi olarak algılamıştır. Naziler iktidara gelmelerinin ardından 1935’te Yahudiliğin sözde biyolojik tanımını yapan Nürnberg Yasaları’nı kabul etmiştir. Nazilerin ırkla ilgili teorilerine göre, Almanlar ve diğer Kuzey Avrupalılar daha üstün bir ırk olan “Ari” ırktan geliyordu.

Naziler’in Teorileri..

II. Dünya Savaşı boyunca Alman doktorlar, Ari ırkının üstünlüğüne ve dolayısıyla diğer ırkların daha aşağı olduğuna yönelik fiziksel kanıt bulmak amacıyla uydurma tıbbî deneyler yürütmüştür. Deneyler sırasında Ari ırktan olmayan sayısız mahkûmun öldürülmesine karşın Naziler, insanlar arasındaki ırksal biyolojik farklılıklar bulunduğu yönündeki teorilerini destekleyecek bir kanıt bulamamıştır.

Nazi ırkçılığı daha önce eşi benzeri görülmemiş çapta bir katliama yol açmıştır. II. Dünya Savaşı sırasında Nazi yönetimi, Polonya ve Sovyet Birliği’ndeki işgal edilmiş doğu topraklarında “etnik temizlik” adını verdikleri bir işe girişmiştir. Bu politika Avrupalı Yahudilerin soykırımı ve Slav toplumlarının liderliğinin ortadan kaldırılması da dâhil olmak üzere, katliam ve sözde düşman “ırkların” imhasını kapsamıştır.

Nazi ırkçıları zihinsel ve fiziksel engelli kişileri Ari ırkın saflığına yönelik biyolojik bir tehlike olarak görmüştür. Dikkatlice planlama yaptıktan sonra Alman doktorlar, Almanya’nın her yerinde kurumlardaki engelli kişileri öldürmeye başlamış, buna da örtmeceli bir şekilde “ötenazi” ismini vermiştir.

“Ötenazi” merkezleri, Almanya 1940–1945

ırkçılık

Nazilerin kullandığı şekliyle, “ötenazi” sözcüğü Nazilerin sözde genetik hastalıklar ya da doğuştan gelen rahatsızlıkları nedeniyle “yaşamaya değer” bulmadığı Almanların sistematik olarak öldürülmesini ifade eder. 1939 sonbaharından başlayarak, Bernburg, Brandenburg, Grafeneck, Hadamar, Hartheim ve Sonnenstein’ta gaz odası tesisleri kuruldu. Hastalar doktorlar tarafından seçilerek, kliniklerden merkezden yönetilen gaz odası tesislerine götürüldü ve öldürüldü.

Merkezden yönetilen ölümlere bir son verilmesi yönündeki kamuoyu baskısından sonra doktorlar, “ötenazi” için seçilen hastaları Almanya’daki klinik ve hastanelerde ölümcül iğne kullanarak öldürdü. Bu sayede “ötenazi” programı savaşın sonuna dek yayılarak devam etti.

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