1917 ekim devrimi

1917 Ekim Devrimi, Rus Tarihi’nin en önemli kırılma anlarından biriydi. Vladimir Lenin’in Marksist yönelimli manifesto konuşmasında: ‘’Sosyalizm gereğince, herkes sıra ile yönetecek ve bu kimsesiz yönetim şekline kısa zamanda alışılacaktır’’ sözleriyle devrimin sonuçlarını açıklamıştır. 7 Kasım 1917 sabahında silahlı Bolşevikler Rusya’nın başkenti St. Petersburg’u ele geçirdiler ve yılın ikinci devrimini başlattılar. Şehrin telefon santrali, devlet bankası ve demiryolu istasyonları da dahil olmak üzere kamu binalarını işgal eden Bolşevikler, ayaklanmayı başlatmış oldu.

Daha sonrasında bir grup fabrika işçisi, çiftçi ve kendini Bolşevik davasına adamış askerden oluşan ve bir milis kuvveti olan Kızıl Muhafızlar, yeni seçilen bakanlar kurulunun da içinde bulunduğu Kışlık Saray’ının etrafını sardı. Bolşevik Lider Vladimir Lenin’in, isyanın başladığını bildirmek üzere Neva Nehri’ndeki Aurora isimli savaş gemisinden ateş açılmasını emretmesi ile 1917 Ekim Devrimi başlamış oldu.

1917 ekim devrimi

1917 Ekim Devrimi ve Yaşananlar

Kazaklardan ve kadınlardan oluşan küçük bir grup asker Kışlık Saray’ı savunmak istese de Aurora, onları  yıldıracak bombardımanı başladıktan sonra teslim oldular. Sarayın ele geçirilmesiyle, geçici hükümetin bakanlar kurulu üyeleri tutuklandı. Mart Devrimi, Çar 2. Nikolas’ın tahta çıkma hakkından vazgeçmesi ile sonuçlandı. Bunun sonucunda Hükümet, Rusya’ya demokrasi getirmek amacıyla kuruldu.

Daha sonra, çarlığın yerine nasıl bir devlet kurulması gerektiği konusunda ortak bir fikre varılamadı ve Bolşevikler de bu kafa karışıklığından yararlanarak kontrolü 1917 Devrimi ile ele aldılar. Bolşevik Partisi, Lenin ve Lev Troçki’nin önderliğinde kuruldu. Parti, özel mülkün ortadan kaldırıldığı ve herkesin kamu menfaati için çalıştığı komünist bir hükümetin gerekliliğine inanan prensipler üzerine inşa edilmişti.

Lenin’in Asıl Amacı Neydi?

Bolşevikler, Sovyet diye isimlendirilen Rus işçi konseyleri tarafından destek buluyor aynı zamanda da halka barış, toprak ve ekmek sözü veriyordu. Fakat Lenin’in asıl niyetinin ortaya çıkması uzun sürmedi. Lenin ,Rusya’nın proleterya diktatörlüğü yoluyla ütopist bir Sosyalist Devlet olabileceği amacını güdüyordu. Rusya’yı iç savaşa sürükleyen, Lenin’in bu ütopya arayışıydı. Bu arayış, Josef Stalin’in baskıcı bir Sovyet hükümeti kurmasına neden oldu. 1913 yılında Çar 2. Nikolas Rusya’daki tek güçtü. İhtişamlı İmparatorluğu, Avrupa’dan Alaska’ya 125 milyon nüfusu ile tam 6.440 kilometreye ulaşıyordu.

 

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